Archive for May, 2008

29
May
08

Untuk Apa Punya Minyak?

Kamis, 29 Mei 2008 | 00:44 WIB

MT Zen

Dahulu, di zaman Orde Baru, saya masih ingat sekali bahwa setiap kali ada berita tentang turunnya harga minyak di pasaran dunia, Pemerintah Indonesia sudah berkeluh kesah. Pada waktu itu cadangan terbukti Indonesia tercatat 12 miliar barrel.

Kini, pada masa Reformasi ini, lebih khusus lagi selama kekuasaan Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono-Jusuf Kalla, pemerintah juga berteriak, berkeluh-kesah, dan panik apabila harga minyak meningkat di pasaran dunia.

Harga minyak turun berteriak, harga minyak naik lebih berteriak lagi dan panik. Jadi, apa gunanya kita punya minyak, sedangkan Indonesia sejak awal sudah menjadi anggota OPEC? Alangkah tidak masuk akalnya keadaan ini? Sangat kontroversial. Minyak itu tak lain adalah kutukan.

Cadangan tak tersentuh

Hingga kini Indonesia secara resmi disebut masih mempunyai cadangan minyak sebesar 9 miliar barrel. Memang betul, jika dibandingkan dengan cadangan minyak negara-negara Timur Tengah, 9 miliar barrel itu tidak ada artinya. Namun, jelas-jelas Indonesia masih punya minyak. Selain cadangan lama, cadangan blok Cepu belum juga dapat dimanfaatkan. Belum lagi cadangan minyak yang luar biasa besar di lepas pantai barat Aceh.

Perlu diketahui bahwa pada pertengahan tahun 1970-an Indonesia memproduksi 1,5 juta barrel per hari. Yang sangat mencolok dalam industri minyak Indonesia adalah tidak ada kemajuan dalam pengembangan teknologi perminyakan Indonesia sama sekali.

Norwegia pada awal-awal tahun 1980-an mempunyai cadangan minyak yang hampir sama dengan Indonesia. Perbedaannya adalah mereka tidak punya sejarah pengembangan industri minyak seperti Indonesia yang sudah mengembangkan industri perminyakan sejak zaman Hindia Belanda, jadi jauh sebelum Perang Dunia ke-2. Lagi pula semua ladang minyak Norwegia terdapat di lepas pantai di Laut Atlantik Utara. Lingkungannya sangat ganas; angin kencang, arus sangat deras, dan suhu sangat rendah; ombak selalu tinggi.

Teknologi lepas pantai, khusus mengenai perminyakan, mereka ambil alih dari Amerika Serikat hanya dalam waktu 10 tahun. Sesudah 10 tahun tidak ada lagi ahli-ahli Amerika yang bekerja di Norwegia.

Saya berkesempatan bekerja di anjungan lepas pantai Norwegia dan mengunjungi semua anjungan lepas pantai Norwegia itu. Tak seorang ahli Amerika pun yang saya jumpai di sana sekalipun modalnya adalah modal Amerika, terkecuali satu; seorang Indonesia keturunan Tionghoa dari Semarang yang merupakan orang pertama yang menyambut saya begitu terjun dari helikopter dan berpegang pada jala pengaman di landasan. Dia berkata sambil tiarap berpegangan tali jala, ”Saya dari Semarang, Pak.” Dia seorang insinyur di Mobil yang sengaja diterbangkan dari kantor besarnya di daratan Amerika untuk menyambut saya di dek anjungan lepas pantai bernama Stadfyord A di Atlantik Utara.

Di sanalah, dan di anjungan-anjungan lain, saya diceritakan bahwa mereka tidak membutuhkan teknologi dari Amerika lagi. Mereka sudah dapat mandiri dan dalam beberapa hal sudah dapat mengembangkan teknologi baru, terutama dalam pemasangan pipa-pipa gas dan pipa-pipa minyak di dasar lautan. Teknologi kelautan dan teknologi bawah air mereka kuasai betul dan sejak dulu orang-orang Norwegia terkenal sebagai bangsa yang sangat ulet dan pemberani. Mereka keturunan orang Viking.

Ada satu hal yang sangat menarik. Menteri perminyakan Norwegia secara pribadi pernah mengatakan kepada saya bahwa Norwegia dengan menerapkan teknologi enhanced recovery dari Amerika berhasil memperbesar cadangan minyak Norwegia dengan tiga kali lipat tanpa menyentuh kawasan-kawasan baru. Ini sesuatu yang sangat menakjubkan.

Norwegia pernah menawarkan teknologi tersebut kepada Indonesia, tetapi mereka minta konsesi minyak tersendiri dengan persyaratan umum yang sama dengan perusahaan lain. Ini terjadi pada akhir tahun 1980-an. Namun, kita masih terlalu terlena dengan ”kemudahan-kemudahan” yang diberikan oleh perusahaan-perusahaan Amerika. Pejabat Pertamina tidak mau mendengarkannya. Gro Halem Brundtland, mantan perdana menteri, menceritakan hal yang sama kepada saya.

Contoh lain, lihat Petronas. Lomba Formula 1 di Sirkuit Sepang disponsori oleh Petronas. Petronas itu belajar perminyakan dari Pertamina, tetapi kini jauh lebih kaya dibanding Pertamina. Gedung kembarnya menjulang di Kuala Lumpur. Ironisnya, banyak sekali pemuda/insinyur Indonesia yang bekerja di Petronas.

Kenapa banyak sekali warga Indonesia dapat bekerja dengan baik dan berprestasi di luar negeri, tetapi begitu masuk kembali ke sistem Indonesia tidak dapat berbuat banyak?

Jika kita boleh ”mengutip” Hamlet, dia bekata, ”There is something rotten, not in the Kingdom of Denmark, but here, in the Republic of Indonesia.”

Lengah-terlena

Salah satu kelemahan Indonesia dan kesalahan bangsa kita adalah mempunyai sifat complacency (perkataan ini tidak ada dalam Bahasa Indonesia, cari saja di kamus Indonesia mana pun), sikap semacam lengah-terlena, lupa meningkatkan terus kewaspadaan dan pencapaian sehingga mudah disusul dan dilampaui orang lain.

Lihat perbulutangkisan (contoh Taufik Hidayat). Lihat persepakbolaan Indonesia dan PSSI sekarang. Ketuanya saja meringkuk di bui tetap ngotot tak mau diganti sekalipun sudah ditegur oleh FIFA.

Apa artinya itu semua? Kita, orang Indonesia tidak lagi tahu etika, tidak lagi punya harga diri, dan tidak lagi tahu malu. Titik.

Ketidakmampuan Pertamina mengembangkan teknologi perminyakan merupakan salah satu contoh yang sangat baik tentang bagaimana salah urus suatu industri. Minyak dan gas di Blok Cepu dan Natuna disedot perusahaan-perusahaan asing, sementara negara nyaris tak memperoleh apa pun. Dalam hal ini, Pertamina bukan satu-satunya. Perhatikan benar-benar semua perusahaan BUMN Indonesia yang lain. Komentar lain tidak ada.

MT Zen Guru Besar Emeritus ITB
http://cetak. kompas.com/ read/xml/ 2008/05/29/ 00441957/ untuk.apa. punya.minyak

25
May
08

Belanda Sudah Lama Siapkan Blue Energy (air laut dan air sungai)

Eddi Santosa – detikcom, 23/05/2008 22:42 WIB, Laporan dari Den Haag

Pusat Blue Energy Afsluitdijk dan Prinsip Dasar

Den Haag – Pemerintah Belanda, pusat iptek Wetsus, serta swasta ENECO Energie dan REDstack sudah sejak 2004 menyiapkan blue energy. Tahun ini akan memasuki fase ujicoba.

Surat Hasrat atau Letter of Intent keempat pihak itu diteken tiga tahun kemudian (Desember
2007), di mana mereka sepakat untuk mengembangkan pusat energi listrik dari perbedaan potensi antara air laut (asin) dan air sungai (tawar).

Lokasi yag ditetapkan adalah kawasan berlimpah suplai air di muara Waddenzee dan Afsluitdijk.

Blue energy atau disebut juga Energi Osmotik dapat dilakukan dengan dua metode: Reverse Electrodialysis (RED) dan Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO). Belanda lebih memilih metode pertama (RED). Metode ini dipilih karena dinilai lebih menjanjikan untuk pengekstrakan energi dari perbedaan elektrolit antara air laut dan air sungai.

Perbedaan itu –melalui pemisahan membran– menurut Persamaan Nernst besarnya kurang lebih 80mV: (gambar rumus Nernst terlampir).

Perbedaan tegangan yang kecil ini dilipatgandakan dengan kompartemen seri oleh membran-membran yang selektif terhadap anion dan kation sehingga diperoleh tegangan besar untuk energi. Listrik dari Blue Energy ini sangat sustainable, karena tanpa emisi CO2, NOx dan SOx.

Lagi pula bahan bakunya melimpah dan gratis dari alam. Menurut bahan informasi yang diperoleh detikcom dari Wetsus, secara teori air sungai Rijn yang bertemu dengan Laut Utara dapat memasok 6000 megawatt (MW).

Kurang jelas mengapa pusat Blue Energy versi Joko Suprapto memilih lokasi di Cikeas. ( es / es )

Rujukan menarik:
1. blue energy belanda (Wetsus)
http://www.onderzoekinformatie.nl/en/oi/nod/organisatie/ORG1241843/

2. osmotic energy
http://exergy.se/goran/cng/alten/proj/97/o/

3. yang lain:
http://www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/276/27/25078.pdf
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/reprint/80/14/4577.pdf
http://www.verdexchange.org/node/35

25
May
08

Norwegian oil company to build floating wind turbine

http://news. xinhuanet. com/english/ 2008-05/23/ content_8238110. htm

http://www.chinaview. cn 2008-05-23 19:03:41 Print BEIJING, May 23 (Xinhuanet) —

A Norwegian oil company plans to build next year what it says will be the world’s first full-scale floating wind turbine. State-controlled StatoilHydro ASA, based in the western port of Stavanger, announced it intent Thursday. StatoilHydro is the key producer in the offshore oil industry that makes Norway a major petroleum exporter. The company said the 80 million U.S. dollar pilot project combines its offshore oil experience with advanced technology for wind power. “We have drawn on our offshore expertise from the oil and gas industry to develop wind power offshore,” said Alexandra Bech Gjoerv, head of StatoilHydro’s new energy unit. The 2.3 megawatt windmill will be placed about six miles off the coast of Karmoey, near Stavanger on the west coast. StatoilHydro said it has already signed contracts for the construction of the wind turbine and its floating base. The electricity will be sent to land through underwater cables. Previous ocean windmill projects have been based on towers built onto the seabed near land, rather than floating structures.

However, windmills on land or near the coast often draw complaints they spoil the view and disturb wildlife. Bech Gjoerv said the windmill, with 260-foot blades, will be mounted on top of a giant spar buoy, a floating structure that is six meters in diameter and 100 meters deep. Spar buoys are often used for such things as offshore loading of oil from platforms to tankers. The company said it plans to conduct a two-year test with the unit after it is goes on line in late 2009 in hopes of demonstrating that floating wind power is commercially viable. (Agencies)

14
May
08

Timor Sea gas block a ‘huge’ find

Ika Krismantari, The Jakarta Post, Jakarta

The Masela Timor Sea gas block in East Nusa Tenggara has potential reserves of 10 trillion cubic feet (tcf), the country’s second’s biggest after the Tangguh block in Papua, an official says.

Upstream Oil and Gas Regulator (BPMigas) chairman Priyono said Monday that based on a first drilling trial by block operator Inpex, Japan’s largest oil company, data on available reserves showed a potential “almost as big as the Tangguh gas block”.

Tangguh block in Papua holds a proven gas reserve of 14.4 trillion cubic feet. This block, operated by British oil giant BP, is scheduled for production start-up by the end of 2008.

BPMigas planning deputy Achmad Luthfi said, however, that Inpex had yet to submit its proposal on project development, estimated to cost US$7 billion.

“Inpex’s representative from Japan will come to town tomorrow, to present detailed findings,” Luthfi said.

The Masela project is expected to involve the construction of a floating liquefied natural gas (LNG) processing terminal with a total capacity expected to reach 4 million tons per annum.

This will be the first floating LNG terminal in the country.

The decision to build a floating terminal is viewed more favorably by the government than the alternative option, which is to construct a pipeline to Australia, the closest possibility to the site, BPMigas said recently.

Due to the high cost of the proposed project, Inpex plans to seek partners to build the floating LNG terminal.

When asked about the plan, Luthfi said that a partnership permit would be given to Inpex and that it could decide on the matter under a business-to-business negotiation.

Should the project be approved this year, he said, the block is expected to start production by 2013.

Data from the Directorate General of Oil and Gas shows that so far Inpex has spent US$101.1 million on seismic surveys and drilling tests in the Masela block.

In this light, Priyono was upbeat that Indonesia could get back to its 1970s heyday in terms of gas production capacity.

During the past six years, the country’s gas production has been through a stagnant period with an average production of 8.15 billion cubic feet per day.

Priyono added that there were additional hopes for national gas production based on the Semai block, which is estimated to have probable gas reserves of 1 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The Semai block was offered in the government’s tender of oil and gas blocks last year.

It is reported that a number of oil and gas giants including U.S. Chevron, Exxon and ConocoPhillips, French Total and British Shell and BP are eyeing the Semai block.

The Timor Sea is part of the Indian Ocean situated between the islands of Rote and Timor, with underwater rights now split between Indonesia, Timor Leste and Australia.

11
May
08

lovely TV Ad

09
May
08

Wind Energy Indonesia

Background

Wind is a form of solar energy. The uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the irregularities of the earth’s surface, and rotation of the earth cause winds. Wind flow patterns are modified by the earth’s terrain, bodies of water, and vegetation. Humankind uses this wind flow, or motion energy, for many purposes, to name a few: flying a kite/zeppelin, sailing, grinding grain, pumping water, and even generating electricity.

The terms wind energy or wind power describe the process by which the wind is used to generate mechanical power or electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power. This mechanical power can be used for specific tasks (such as grinding grain or pumping water) or a generator can convert this mechanical power into electricity.

A wind turbine works the opposite of a fan. Instead of using electricity to make wind, like a fan, wind turbines use wind to make electricity. The wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft, which connects to a generator and makes electricity. Large and modern wind turbines operate together in wind farms to produce electricity for utilities, while homeowners and remote villages, to help meet their energy needs, use small turbines.

Indonesia has relatively available potential site for wind energy utilization, but its utilization is still low. Currently, research and efforts are continuously conducted to open the possibilities of increasing the wind energy utilization.

Advantages/Disadvantages of Wind Energy

Despite its disadvantages, wind energy offers many advantages, which explains why it’s the fastest-growing energy source in the world. Research efforts are aimed at addressing the challenges to larger use of wind energy.

Advantages
Because wind energy is fueled by the wind, a clean fuel source, it makes wind energy a clean energy. Wind energy does not pollute the air like common power plants that rely on combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas. Wind turbines do not produce harmful emissions that cause acid rain or greenhouse gasses, so it is environmentally friendly.
Wind energy is a domestic source of energy, produced in the Indonesia . The nation’s wind supply is relatively available (especially in the eastern part).
Wind energy relies on the renewable power of the wind, which cannot be used up. As already mentioned, wind is actually a form of solar energy.
Nowadays, wind energy is one of the lowest-priced renewable energy technologies available. Depending upon the wind resource and project financing of the particular project, wind energy cost less than 6 cents USD per kilowatt-hour (for potential site with wind speed > 5 m/s or offshore).
Wind turbines can be constructed on farms or ranches, thus benefiting the economy in rural areas, where most of the best wind sites are found. Farmers and ranchers can continue to work the land because the wind turbines use only a fraction of the land. Wind power plant owners make rent payments to the farmer or rancher for the use of the land.

Disadvantages
Wind power must compete with conventional generation sources on a cost basis. Depending on how energetic a wind site is, the wind farm may or may not be cost competitive. Even though the cost of wind power has decreased dramatically in the past 10 years, the technology requires a higher initial investment than fossil-fueled generators (and even other renewable based generators).
The major challenge to using wind as a source of power is that the wind is intermittent and it does not always blow when electricity is needed. Wind energy cannot be stored (unless batteries are used); and not all winds can be harnessed to meet the timing of electricity demands.
Suitable wind sites are often located in remote locations, far from cities where the electricity is needed.
Wind resource development may compete with other uses for the land and those alternative uses may be more highly valued than electricity generation.
Although wind power plants have relatively small impact on the environment compared to other conventional power plants, there is some concern over the noise produced by the rotor blades, aesthetic (visual) impacts, and sometimes birds have been killed by flying into the rotors. Most of these problems have been resolved or greatly reduced through technological development or by properly siting wind plants.

General Condition in Indonesia
Wind energy development is part of national energy program in order to realize a sustainable supply and utilization of energy.

There are some potential locations in the country for wind energy utilization.
Installed capacity for wind power is relatively still small compared to its potential.
Wind Energy Potential in Indonesia

Wind energy potential in Indonesia quite varies and could be classified into three categories, namely:
small-scale utilization, with wind speed of 2.5 – 4 m/s and capacity up to 10 kW;
medium-scale utilization, with wind speed of 4 – 5 m/s and capacity of 10 – 100 kW;
large-scale utilization, with wind speed and capacity higher than 5 m/s and 100 kW, respectively.

Recorded and measured wind data are as follow:
Region of Nusa Tenggara Barat: wind speed ranging from 3.4 – 5.3 m/s (10 locations);
Region of Nusa Tenggara Timur: wind speed ranging from 3.2 – 6.5 m/s (10 locations);
Region of Sulawesi and other: wind speed ranging from 2.6 – 4.9 m/s (10 locations).

Detail data* of each region is tabulated below.

* Data is properties of National Institute for Aeronautics and Space ( LAPAN).

National Wind Energy Technology

Generally speaking, US / Europe wind turbines available in the market are usually designed for high wind speed application which is not quite appropriate for wind condition in Indonesia . Meanwhile, there are some wind turbines, which might be appropriate to be used in the country. Therefore, development of wind energy technologies in Indonesia is widely opened. Currently, wind energy technologies developed in the country are designs and prototypes for:
power plants with capacity of 50 – 10,000 W;
mechanical power pumping with capacity of 45 – 250 liters/min;
power plants with capacity of 3.5 kW coupled with electrical pump for water pumping.

National Fabrication Capability

In general, status of national fabrication for wind energy conversion system is:
small-scale utilization: national industry has already able to built wind energy conversion system components up to 5 kW capacity and they are ready for mass production if the market available;
medium and large scale utilization: still under development.

Application

Testing, information dissemination, and direct utilization of wind energy for various applications, to wit: lighting, battery charging, radio communication, television, radio, home industry, telecommunication, water pumping.

List of Companies Working on Wind Energy

Below are list of companies involved in wind energy development in Indonesia . To name a few:
PT Indonesia Power
PT PLN-JE
PT Bumi Energi Equatorial
Obayashi Corporation
PT Guna Elektro
PT Indokomas Buana Perkasa
PT Citrakaton Dwitama.

Supporting Facilities

To support wind energy development, the country already has various facilities:
wind potential measurement equipments;
wind energy conversion system laboratory;
field-testing laboratory;
aerodynamic laboratory – subsonic speed.

Barriers

Below are several barriers encountered for wind energy development in the country, viz.:
technical and financial difficulties in data access for input on establishment of wind potential map;
limited fund to access and identify potential location especially in islands and remote areas;
relatively high price for wind energy compared to fossil based energy;

available wind energy products (usually for high speed application) are not suitable for the country’s application (low speed).

source : http://www.energiterbarukan.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=37

09
May
08

Energi Tidal (Pasang Surut)

Energi tidal atau energi pasang surut barangkali kurang begitu dikenal dibandingkan dengan energi samudera yang lain seperti energi ombak (wave energy). Jika dibandingkan dengan energi angin dan surya, energi tidal memiliki sejumlah keunggulan antara lain: memiliki aliran energi yang lebih pasti/mudah diprediksi, lebih hemat ruang dan tidak membutuhkan teknologi konversi yang rumit. Kelemahan energi ini diantaranya adalah membutuhkan alat konversi yang handal yang mampu bertahan dengan kondisi lingkungan laut yang keras yang disebabkan antara lain oleh tingginya tingkat korosi dan kuatnya arus laut.

Saat ini baru beberapa negara yang yang sudah melakukan penelitian secara serius dalam bidang energi tidal, diantaranya Inggris dan Norwegia. Di Norwegia, pengembangan energi ini dimotori oleh Statkraft, perusahaan pembangkit listrik terbesar di negara tersebut. Statkraft bahkan memperkirakan energi tidal akan menjadi sumber energi terbarukan yang siap masuk tahap komersial berikutnya di Norwegia setelah energi hidro dan angin. Keterlibatan perusahaan listrik besar seperti Statkraft mengindikasikan bahwa energi tidal memang layak diperhitungkan baik secara teknologi maupun ekonomis sebagai salah satu solusi pemenuhan kebutuhan energi dalam waktu dekat.

sumber : http://www.statkraft.com/Images/MORILD1_tcm4-5357.jpg

Pembangkit listrik tenaga tidal terapung. Turbin-turbin air dan mesin-mesin listrik terletak di bawah air, hanya bagian atas dari pembangkit listrik tersebut yang tampak diatas permukaan laut (Sumber: Statkraft)

Perlu diketahui bahwa potensi energi tidal di Indonesia termasuk yang terbesar di dunia, khususnya di perairan timur Indonesia. Sekarang inilah saatnya bagi Indonesia untuk mulai menggarap energi ini. Jika bangsa kita mampu memanfaatkan dan menguasai teknologi pemanfaatan energi tidal, ada dua keuntungan yang bisa diperoleh yaitu, pertama, keuntungan pemanfaatan energi tidal sebagai solusi pemenuhan kebutuhan energi nasional dan, kedua, kita akan menjadi negara yang mampu menjual teknologi tidal yang memberikan kontribusi terhadap devisa negara. Belajar dari India yang mampu menjadi salah satu pemain teknologi turbin angin dunia (dengan produk turbin angin Suzlon), maka tujuan yang kedua bukanlah hal yang terlalu muluk untuk kita wujudkan.

_________________________________
Sumber: http://www.engineering-center.net




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